AUG / Institute of Water & Environment (IWE)
Institute of Water & Environment
Institute of Water and Environment at Al Azhar University, provides water, wastewater and soil analysis services for both the private and public sectors, through its equipped laboratories. The laboratories have been equipped with high the necessary equipment for enabling the institute to conduct most of chemical, physical and microbiological analysis for water, wastewater, and soil .
Furthermore, the laboratories have been recently developed with Test Bench to perform scientific researches in water desalination. The Labs has been integrated and supported with equipment and chemicals two times: (1) by the Italian Project during the period from 1996 up to 1999, and (2) by Flender/UNESCO Project on 1998 up to 2000. Late in 2013 the laboratory is integrated with new equipment (ICP for heavy metals analysis) with spectrophotometers and some kits and chemicals by the UNESCO office in Gaza.
Analytical methods in the IWE laboratories:
- Water and Wastewater Analysis
Physical and aggregates properties: Electrical Conductivity; Turbidity; Alkalinity Carbonate; Bicarbonate; Hardness; Total Dissolved Solids; Suspended Solids; Settable Solids; and Fixed & Volatile Solids.
Metals: Calcium; Magnesium; Potassium and Sodium; Aluminum; Barium; Bismuth; Cadmium; Chromium; Cobalt; Cupper; Gallium; Iron; Indium; Lead; Lithium; Manganese; Nickel; Silver; Strontium; and Zinc.
Inorganic nonmetallic constituents: Chloride; Fluoride, pH, Ammonia; Nitrate; Nitrite; Phosphorus, Phosphates Sulfate and Boron.
Aggregate organic constitutes: Biochemical Oxygen Demand; and Chemical Oxygen Demand.
- Microbiological analysis
Total Coliform; Fecal Coliform; Total & Fecal Streptococus; Escherichia Coli; Total Colony Count.
- Soil Analysis
Moisture content, Texture; Sieve Analysis; Density; Pore Space (porosity); pH; Electrical Conductivity; Carbonate; Bicarbonate; Calcium; Chloride; Magnesium; Sodium; Potassium; Calcium Carbonate; Organic Matter; Nitrate; Phosphorus; Phosphates; and Heavy metals (Aluminium; Barium; Bismuth; Cadmium; Chromium; Cobalt; Cupper; Gallium; Iron; Indium; Lead; Lithium; Manganese; Nickel; Silver; Strontium; and Zinc).
The Institute conducts the analysis for water, wastewater and soil according to the following references:
- Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, (21st edition, 2005). American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA), and Water Environment Federation (WEF). Washington, DC., USA
- Issam I. Bashour and Antoine H. Sayegh (2007) Methods of Analysis for Arid and Semi-Arid Regions. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
- L.P. van Reeuwijk (1995) Procedure for Soil Analysis. Manual for: International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
- John Ryan, Sonia Garabet, Karl Harmsen, and Abdul Rashir (1996) A Soil and plant Analysis. Manual Adapted for the West Asia and North Africa Region. BY: International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria.